The Centres for Disease  Control and Prevention, CDC,  has  highlighted Four Steps to Food Safety: Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill

4 steps to food safety banner

Following four simple steps at home—Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill—can help protect you and your loved ones from food poisoning.


Excellent experience with Spreadsheet millions….that pulls in millions

Get it here

Clean: Wash your hands and surfaces often.

  • Germs that cause food poisoning can survive in many places and spread around your kitchen.
  • Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm or cold water before, during, and after preparing food and before eating.
    • Always wash hands after handling uncooked meat, chicken and other poultry, seafood, flour, or eggs.
  • Wash your utensils, cutting boards, and countertops with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item.
  • Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under running water.

Separate: Don’t cross-contaminate.

  • Raw meat, chicken and other poultry, seafood, and eggs can spread germs to ready-to-eat food unless you keep them separate.
    • When grocery shopping, keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and their juices away from other foods.
    • Keep raw or marinating meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs separate from all other foods in the refrigerator. Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood in sealed containers or wrap them securely so the juices don’t leak onto other foods.
    • Use one cutting board or plate for raw meat, poultry, and seafood and a separate cutting board or plate for produce, bread, and other foods that won’t be cooked.
    • Raw chicken is ready to cook and doesn’t need to be washed first. Washing these foods can spread germs to other foods, the sink, and the counter and make you sick. If you choose to wash chicken, do so as safely as possible (see steps).

Cook to the right temperature.

  • Food is safely cooked when the internal temperature gets high enough to kill germs that can make you sick. The only way to tell if food is safely cooked is to use a food thermometer. You can’t tell if food is safely cooked by checking its color and texture (except for seafood).
  • Use a food thermometer to ensure foods are cooked to a safe internal temperature. Learn how to place the thermometer correctly in different food to get an accurate reading.
    • Whole cuts of beef, veal, lamb, and pork, including fresh ham: 145°F (then allow the meat to rest for 3 minutes before carving or eating)
    • Fish with fins: 145°F or cook until the flesh is opaque and separates easily with a fork
    • Ground meats, such as beef and pork: 160°F
    • All poultry, including ground chicken and turkey: 165°F
    • Leftovers and casseroles: 165°F


Here comes World’s First Mobile App Builder For iOS/Android That Also Allows You To Turn Your Existing Website into a Lightning Fast Future Ready Mobile App in just 1 Click

Above that, its cheap and reliable

Click here  for more


  • Check this chart for a detailed list of temperatures and foods, including shellfish and precooked ham.
  • Microwave food thoroughly: Follow recommended cooking and standing times. Letting food sit for a few minutes after microwaving allows cold spots to absorb heat from hotter areas and cook more completely.
    • Know your microwave’s wattage. Check inside the door, owner’s manual, or manufacturer’s website. If your microwave is high wattage (800 watts or more), use the minimum cooking time recommended. If it is low wattage (300–500 watts), use the maximum cooking time recommended.
    • When reheating, use a food thermometer to make sure that microwaved food reaches 165°F.

Source :  CDC

Posted August 29 2023



Do you  plan to establish  an industry involving packaged water,  Cosmetics  , Food  or related items that require approval from the relevant government regulatory bodies?  Do not let your exported commodities be REJECTED at the point of entry in Europe or America.

    Learn to play piano with my friends at

We offer Professional services to   exporters and manufacturers of consumables and body care products.

For your earth- friendly products check us at

From feasibility reports through   installation of plant to operations, our experts are licensed by the approved government Professional body.

For male and breast enhancement   as well as weight loss solutions  visit us at,,

Come, let’s discuss  fair international trade and safe local consumption

We also provide the  clearing and forwarding services for international transactions

Contact us at

Telephone 234 9038799975, 234 8132698789(WatsApp)


According to a Report by Grace Hussain most food labels may be misleading after all . She cited many ways this may occur. ad gave some tips o playing safe Pls read on .1 Label Says “Sugar-Free” The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides guidelines for a variety of common food labels, including sugar-free. While the […]


Food safety is a key issue  when it comes to commercial poultry production and over recent years this has become quite an important  for discussion. Food borne infections are posing quite a threat to the consumers, due to inadequate health and biosafety measures. As poultry producers are searching for tools to combat Salmonella infection in their birds and manage food safety risks. Campylobacter species is also in its way causing a massive destruction to the poultry production and leads to severe health problems in humans. . The complete eradication of Salmonella from poultry production is an incredibly difficult task. Implementation of combination of strategies including proper management, bio security, vaccination protocols, nutritional feed additives are proving useful steps in this direction. Moreover, due to drug resistance to both Salmonella and Campylobacter species, researchers and scientists are actively finding additional tools & measures to assist in managing food safety risks.
The most common species that are found mainly in chicken & turkey are Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum. Good biosecurity is key in preventing the infections from outside getting into the farm. Humans are the main carrier and source of typhoid infection. So, in order to prevent such infections, the following steps should be taken:

  • Restrict access to farm & flocks
  • Limit the number of people in contact with birds.
  • Sanitization facilities should be there.
  • Proper security fencing to prevent stray dogs to enter the farm.
  • There should be proper rodents and pest control schemes. Traps should be monitored daily.
  • Effective biosecurity and cleanliness go hand in hand.
  • Clean and disinfect thoroughly between batches of birds.
  • Replace bedding so as to prevent Marek’s disease & Avian influenza that can survive for longer duration in beddings.
  • Equipment like drinkers & feeders should be washed properly to prevent any kind of fungal infections.
  • Isolation of new flock of birds before bringing them into the existing flock.
  • Water supply should be free from pathogens and should be chlorinated.
  • There should be batch method of rearing, so that if there is any outbreak or any spread of infection that will not lead to destruction of whole slot.
  • Proper vaccination should be there.

The main challenge is the fact that Avian diseases can be hard to properly diagnose. Thus, in order to monitor the flock, there should be proper data of water and feed intake, the mortality and production on the daily basis.

For several decades, the contribution of the food animal as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance with impacts on human health has been a controversial topic. Mainly nontyphoidal Salmonella is considered to be the most dangerous when it comes to human health.
Regular use of antibiotics with modern intensives food-animal/poultry production has been considered the main driver for the development of antibiotic resistance in Zoonotic bacteria like Salmonella and Campylobacter.
Fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin and Enrofloxacin is mainly used to combat these infections. Resistance to fluoroquinolones requires only one-point mutations in gyrA gene and resistance has increased rapidly among chicken and human Campylobacter isolates. Since, resistance to older drugs like ampicillin, chloramphenicol has been increasing, so treatment options for Salmonellosis & Campylobacteriosis are switched to fluoroquinolones. However, this is also showing resistance leading to increased severity, morbidity and mortality. So, to prevent further indiscriminate use of antibiotics, we should be more focused on the biosecurity measures and farm management. As “Prevention is better than Cure”

  1. Proper hygiene during slaughter and proper washing and chilling of carcass decreases the chances of food borne infection.
  2. The final consumer risk can be reduced by preventing cross contamination of ready to eat foods from cutting boards, knifes and hands during food preparation as well as cook at temperature that kills the micro-organisms.
  3. As farm is the preliminary site of Salmonella & Campylobacter entry into the production, the major intervention strategies should be targeted at farm levels using biosecurity measures.
  4. The farmers must be educated enough to implement the biosafety measures properly and effectively.

It is evident that majority of infections can be attributed to poultry. Human Campylobacteriosis and Salmonellosis has been increasing in the past decades and poultry has been identified as the major contributor. Colonization of poultry occurs at farm levels where it is necessary to focus on enhancing the biosecurity and implementing it properly as whole world has come to realize the importance of biosecurity and quarantine during COVID-19 pandemic. And main area of concern is antibiotic resistance to the infection. So, the time has come to implement it strictly in farms to avoid any chance of outbreak of zoonotic diseases and thus, proper managemental and biosecurity measures play a beneficial role for healthy ad safe meat production that will promote better health & overall the better growth of poultry industry.

by Himani Ravi, G.B. Pant university of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, India





International trade among African countries witnessed a set back few year ago when  Kenya rejected 600 000 tons of maize from Uganda in 2018 due to poor quality and aflatoxin contamination. A report , by E Gourd  published in The Lancet early in 2023, further raised te alarm in Uganda. At the Kansas State University, researchers hinted of a rise i aflatoxin levels due to high temperatures ad drought, two conditions readily available in Africa. For more, please visit the 2 resources hereunder

Rising temps, drought likely to increase incidence of aflatoxin …

Kansas State University › news › stories › 2023/04
17 Apr 2023 — Researchers estimate losses to triple by 2040 under current trends. April 17, 2023. By Pat Melgares, K-State Research and Extension news service.

High concentrations of aflatoxin in Ugandan grains sparks …

The Lancet › lanonc › article › fulltext
by E Gourd2023 — “Kenya rejected 600 000 tons of maize from Uganda in 2018 due to poor quality and aflatoxin contamination,” he recalled, “amounting to $48·6 …
Dele Fapohunda
May 4, 2023

Procedure for getting Food Handler Certificate in Nigeria


  • A candidate shall check with their respective state, province or municipality on the latest updates and regulations on getting a food handler certificate.
  • The applicant may be asked to provide the blood sample along with the X-ray at the respective office for processing or the applicant may be asked to submit the blood report and X-ray as per the respective department norms.

Apply In-Person:

  1. In Nigeria, the food handlers should get certificate of food handlers through food handlers test / medical fitness tests. The candidate shall apply with the respective office of the “National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control – NAFDAC” (food safety and applied nutrition).
  2. Contact Link
  3. The candidate shall use the contact numbers from the given page as appropriate to find the respective institution to get the required training for this certificate or get certified.
  4. The candidate shall visit the respective office and meet the concerned authority. Don’t forget to take the required copy of documents along with originals to the office.
  5. The applicant shall follow the guidelines of the institution authority to get enrolled in the training.
  6. In general the applicant may be asked to complete the course and obtain a certificate or the applicant may be asked to attend a session on food hygiene as part of the certification process.
  7. Once the training is completed, the applicant will be required to provide samples (Sputum Test, Urine Test, Stool Test, Chest X-ray, Widal Test and Hepatise B) as per the department norms or provide the medical test results from the government approved labs or private labs for the Sputum Test, Urine Test, Stool Test, Chest X-ray, Widal Test and Hepatise B.
  8. Once the above steps are completed, the applicant will be audited by the external entity to get the certification.
  9. The applicant should pay for the training, medical test and other charges as appropriate.
  10. The applicant shall follow the guidelines of the institution to get the certificate as per applicable norms.
  11. The time period depends upon the training period and test result.

Required Documents

  • Application form
  • Valid citizen proof (respective ID’s issued by respective nation)
  • Applicant’s proof of identity (identity card / passport / driving licence)
  • A photocopy of the original certificate denoting completion of food handler’s course
  • Copy of fitness and medical certificate from a medical practitioner
  • Passport size photograph (taken not more than three months from the applying date – 6 copies)
  • Copy of passport
  • A self-addressed envelope with or without stamps (as per requirement)
  • Copy of the police record of the applicant as per requirement
Note: Apart from the above documents, the authorities may ask for additional information or documents. Please provide them for processing.

Office  Contact

Food Safety and Applied Nutrition,
FSAN Headquarters, Second Floor, NAFDAC Office Complex,
Plot 1, Isolo Industrial Estate, Oshodi-Apapa Expressway,
Isolo, Lagos.
Phone: +234(0) 906 095 6907


Source =,food%20safety%20and%20applied%20nutrition).

May 4 2023


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has released 2 reports on food quality standards.

The need to be sensitive to  antimicrobials  and Veterinary drug residues in Agriculture was emphasized because of their inherent hazardous impacts


Please read on

FAO Farmer Field Schools (FFS) have demonstrated that making changes in livestock production practices can lead to prudent antimicrobial use (AMU), and safe food as well as increased profit margins. Results from pilots in Ghana, Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe show that farmers who participated in FAO’s poultry FFS decreased their use of antimicrobials on the farm and increased their efforts in infection prevention and control. The increased use of biosecurity measures, such as footbaths and personal protective equipment, were a result of improved knowledge, more prudent attitudes and practises on AMU. Increased motivation and interaction with animal health professionals were…
FAO, with the kind financial support of the Government of France, is currently convening a regional workshop on food safety risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food in Santiago, Chile on 15 – 17 November 2022.  The workshop is the result of close collaboration between the FAO Food Systems and Food Safety Division and the FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean.  This subject is of great importance for the region, as countries in this area are key producers and exporters of meat. In this regard, FAO’s Food Safety Officer, Vittorio Fattori, pointed out that “it is…
For more information, please contact the Source
Dele Fapohunda
19 Nov 2022


Food Safety News, an authority on  events around wholesome food consumption  and the adherence to standards has published some recalls that arose from food quality compromise. We bring you a few of these today. Happy reading

Food Recalls

All comments and reactions may be directed to

Twitter: @foodsafetynews
Facebook: Food Safety News Page
LinkedIn: Food Safety News: Overview | LinkedIn
NOTE=We welcome all news, reports, conferences, scholarships, fellowships, placements etc   with focus on food safety
Contact us at<>
Dele Fapohunda
Nov 19, 2022

Food System Resilience within a Learning Organization by Elst et al 2022

Just recently a brilliantly packaged write up on food system resilience was released by Elst, Cornelis and his team. Other co authors are Hoffman JT and Unis CC.
It takes readers through the need to observe even the slightest critical control points , among others. It is a super asset for those in possession of the paper. For details, please visit

Immense appreciation to Elst for sending this resource to Safe Food and Feed Foundation

Dele Fapohunda PhD
7 July 2022


USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) late Friday issued  a public health alert due to concerns that ready-to-eat (R-T-E) chicken salad products produced by Simply Fresh Market, a Marietta, Ga. establishment, may be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.The FSIS pubic health alert said a recall was not requested because the known affected product is no longer available in commerce for consumers to purchase. FSIS’s  concern is that some product may be in consumers’ refrigerators. Consumers who have purchased these products are urged not to consume them. These products should be thrown away or returned to the place of purchase.The R-T-E chicken salad with apples and walnuts items were produced on Jan. 17, 2022. The following product is subject to the public health alert [view label]:

  • 8-oz and 16-oz. deli hinged containers of “simply fresh MARKET CHICKEN SALAD Apples & Walnuts” with a sell by date of “1/25” printed on the label.

The products bear establishment number “EST. P47170” inside the USDA mark of inspection. These items were shipped to three local markets in Atlanta,

The contamination  was discovered when the company notified FSIS that product sampling reported positive Listeria monocytogenes results.

There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products. Anyone concerned about an illness should contact a health care provider.

Consumption of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a serious infection that primarily affects older adults, persons with weakened immune systems, and pregnant women and their newborns. Less commonly, persons outside these risk groups are affected.

About Listeria infections

Food contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes may not look or smell spoiled but can still cause serious and sometimes life-threatening infections. Anyone who has eaten any recalled product and developed symptoms of Listeria infection should seek medical treatment and tell their doctors about the possible Listeria exposure.

Also, anyone who has eaten any of the recalled products should monitor themselves for the food poisoning symptoms during the coming weeks because it can take up to 70 days after exposure to Listeria for symptoms of listeriosis to develop.

Symptoms of Listeria infection can include vomiting, nausea, persistent fever, muscle aches, severe headache, and neck stiffness. Specific laboratory tests are required to diagnose Listeria infections, which can mimic other illnesses.

Pregnant women, the elderly, young children, and people such as cancer patients who have weakened immune systems are particularly at risk of serious illnesses, life-threatening infections, and other complications. Although infected pregnant women may experience only mild, flu-like symptoms, their infections can lead to premature delivery, infection of the newborn, or even stillbirth.


Dele Fapohunda

Feb 1 2022