Archive for category: Research and Society


The  NEW FARMER S ALMANAC  VOL 5, 2021,  THE GRAND LAND PLAN has just been published  by Greenhorns, an organization based in Maine, USA which believes in the reformation of Agriculture for humanity to survive on this planet . It does this by focussing on ecological farming harnessing data and facts from diverse stakeholders including researchers, artists media producers and other collaborators

The 2021 Almanac has contributions from seasoned experts who linked with history to generate ideas and facts that can lead to sustainable and healthier planet

‘What is left is left for us’ to manage sensibly particularly now that there is a growing demand for rural land. The history of colonization of indigenous land, the activity of the minority and other events are to combine to dictate the mode and style of celebrating the 10th Earthlife day

Every statement in the 12-month Almanac  comes to the conclusion of the need to carry out earth repair and replacing trauma with healing as the only route forward for humanity

It is a must read not only for stakeholders in agricultural production, but also those in processing, storage and safety in food value chain and environmental remediation

The 399-page report was edited by Severine von Tscharner Fleming(Editor in chief) and Brian Olson(Lead Editor). Its printed by McNaughton and Gunn.


For more on this , please visit  <>

Or write



Dele Fapohunda Ph.D

14 March 2021


The Forum for Agricultural Research In Africa (FARA) publishes  some information on its site or shared on the PAEPARD Platform. The information is for a wider dissemination Kindly visit the site for more information

The Secretariat is pleased to present to you updates of Funding Opportunities & Upcoming Events in AR4D in Africa for the month of March 2021 and beyond. Please visit our blog to access all the details.

Funding Opportunities & Scholarships in AR4D:

Upcoming events in AR4D:

You may also visit our corporate website and Africa Agricultural Observatory for other information about FARA.


Dele Fapohunda Ph.D

08 March, 2021


Dear Readers

We got this material from the site of fsis usda and we believe it will benefit all stakeholders in the food safety club. For any clarification, please contact as stated at the bottom of the article


Keep Food Safe! Food Safety Basics

Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can’t see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe:


  • Purchase refrigerated or frozen items after selecting your nonperishables.
  • Never choose meat or poultry in packaging that is torn or leaking.
  • Do not buy food past “Sell-By,” “Use-By,” or other expiration dates.


  • Always refrigerate perishable food within 2 hours (1 hour when the temperature is above 90 °F).
  • Check the temperature of your refrigerator and freezer with an appliance thermometer. The refrigerator should be at 40 °F or below and the freezer at 0 °F or below.
  • Cook or freeze fresh poultry, fish, ground meats, and variety meats within 2 days; other beef, veal, lamb, or pork, within 3 to 5 days.
  • Perishable food such as meat and poultry should be wrapped securely to maintain quality and to prevent meat juices from getting onto other food.
  • To maintain quality when freezing meat and poultry in its original package, wrap the package again with foil or plastic wrap that is recommended for the freezer.
  • In general, high-acid canned food such as tomatoes, grapefruit, and pineapple can be stored unopened on the shelf for 12 to 18 months. Low-acid canned food such as meat, poultry, fish, and most vegetables will keep 2 to 5 years-if the unopened can remains in good condition and has been stored in a cool, clean, and dry place. Discard cans that are dented, leaking, bulging, or rusted.


  • Refrigerator—The refrigerator allows slow, safe thawing. Make sure thawing meat and poultry juices do not drip onto other food.
  • Cold Water—For faster thawing, place food in a leak-proof plastic bag. Submerge in cold tap water. Change the water every 30 minutes. Cook immediately after thawing.
  • Microwave—Cook meat and poultry immediately after microwave thawing.


  • Always wash hands with soap and warm water for 20 seconds before and after handling food.
  • Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, poultry, fish, and their juices away from other food. After cutting raw meats, wash cutting board, knife, and counter tops with hot, soapy water.
  • Marinate meat and poultry in a covered dish in the refrigerator.
  • Sanitize cutting boards by using a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water.

Cook all raw beef, pork, lamb and veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three minutes before carving or consuming. For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook meat to higher temperatures.

Ground meats: Cook all raw ground beef, pork, lamb, and veal to an internal temperature of 160 °F as measured with a food thermometer.

Poultry: Cook all poultry to an internal temperature of 165 °F as measured with a food thermometer.

Product Type Minimum Internal Temperature & Rest Time
Beef, Pork, Veal & Lamb Ground 160 °F
Steak, chops, and roasts 145 °F and allow to rest for at least 3 minutes
Chicken & Turkey Breasts 165 °F
Ground, stuffing, and casseroles 165 °F
Whole bird, legs, thighs, and wings 165 °F
Eggs Any type 160 °F
Fish & Shellfish Any type 145 °F
Leftovers Any type 165 °F
Ham Fresh or smoked (uncooked) 145 °F and allow to rest for at least 3 minutes
Fully cooked ham (to reheat) Reheat cooked hams packaged in USDA-inspected plants to 140 °F and all others to 165 °F.

[Top of Page]


  • Hot food should be held at 140 °F or warmer.
  • Cold food should be held at 40 °F or colder.
  • When serving food at a buffet, keep hot food hot with chafing dishes, slow cookers, and warming trays. Keep cold food cold by nesting dishes in bowls of ice or use small serving trays and replace them often.
  • Use a food thermometer to check hot and cold holding temperatures.
  • Perishable food should not be left out more than 2 hours at room temperature (1 hour when the temperature is above 90 °F).


  • Discard any food left out at room temperature for more than 2 hours (1 hour if the temperature was above 90 °F).
  • Place food into shallow containers and immediately put in the refrigerator or freezer for rapid cooling.
  • Use most cooked leftovers within 3 to 4 days. (See chart.)
  • Reheat leftovers to 165 °F.

Meat and poultry defrosted in the refrigerator may be refrozen before or after cooking. If thawed by other methods, cook before refreezing.

Cold Storage Chart
These storage times will help keep refrigerated (40 °F) food from spoiling or becoming dangerous to eat. Because freezing at 0 °F or below (not 32 °F) keeps food safe indefinitely, recommended freezer storage times are for quality only. Use an appliance thermometer to monitor storage temperatures in the refrigerator and freezer.

Cold Storage Chart
Preparation Type or Description Refrigerate (40 °F) Freeze (0 °F) *
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Veal
Fresh beef, lamb, veal and pork Ground, hamburger, stew meat, variety meat (tongue, liver, heart, kidney, chitterlings) 1-2 days 3-4 months
Chops, roasts, steaks 3-5 days 4-12 months
Chops, pre-stuffed 1 day Does not freeze well
Leftovers Including casseroles 3-4 days 2-3 months
Corned Beef In pouch, with pickling juices 5-7 days Drained, 1 month
Bacon Bacon 7 days 1 month
Ham (Pre-Cooked)
Fully Cooked Slices 3-4 days 1-2 months
Half 3-5 days 1-2 months
Whole 7 days 1-2 months
Canned Labeled “Keep Refrigerated” Opened 3-5 days 1-2 months
Unopened 6-9 months Do not freeze
Vacuum sealed Unopened, fully cooked vacuum sealed, dated “Use-by” date 1-2 months
Unopened, fully cooked vacuum sealed, undated 2 weeks 1-2 months
Chicken, Turkey, Other Poultry
Fresh Chicken breast, pre-stuffed 1 day Does not freeze well
Ground, patties, giblets 1-2 days 3-4 months
Pieces 1-2 days 9 months
Whole 1-2 days 1 year
Leftovers Casseroles 3-4 days 4-6 months
Chicken nuggets, patties 1-2 days 1-3 months
Pieces, plain or fried 3-4 days 4 months
Pieces in broth or gravy 3-4 days 6 months
Fresh In shell 3-5 weeks Do not freeze
Yolk, whites 2-4 days 1 year
Leftovers Casserole, quiche, omelet 3-4 days 2 months
Hard-cooked 1 week Does not freeze well
Opened Liquid pasteurized eggs, egg substitutes 3 days Does not freeze well
Unopened Liquid pasteurized eggs, egg substitutes 10 days 1 year
Sausages, Lunch Meats
Hard Sausage Jerky sticks, pepperoni 2-3 weeks 1-2 months
Raw Sausage Beef, chicken, pork, turkey 1-2 days 1-2 months
Smoked Sausage Breakfast links, patties 7 days 1-2 months
Lunch Meat Deli-sliced or store-prepared 3-5 days 1-2 months
Opened Hot dogs 1 week 1-2 months
Lunch meat—vacuum-packed, sliced 3-5 days 1-2 months
Summer sausage labeled “keep refrigerated” 3 weeks 1-2 months
Unopened Hot dogs 2 weeks 1-2 months
Lunch meat—vacuum-packed, sliced 2 weeks 1-2 months
Summer sausage labeled “keep refrigerated” 3 months 1-2 months
Fresh Fish 1-2 days 3-8 months
Shellfish 1-2 days 3-12 months
Leftovers Fish and shellfish 3-4 days 3 months
Frozen Dinners and Entrees “Keep frozen” Unsafe to thaw 3-4 months
Mayonnaise Commercial, “refrigerate after opening” 2 months Do not freeze
Other Leftovers Gravy and meat broth 3-4 days 2-3 months
Pizza 3-4 days 1-2 months
Soups and stews 3-4 days 2-3 months
Stuffing 3-4 days 1 month
Salads Egg, chicken, ham, macaroni, tuna (store-prepared, homemade) 3-5 days Does not freeze well
* Because freezing at 0 °F keeps food safe indefinitely, recommended storage times are for quality only.

For More Food Safety Information, Contact:
USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline
1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854)
The hotline is open year-round Monday through Friday from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. ET (English or Spanish). Recorded food safety messages are available 24 hours a day.
Visit the Web: : FSIS’ automated response system can provide food safety information 24/7 and a live chat during Hotline hours.

SOURCE   =; accessed 01 Feb 2021

We are grateful to USDA for the rich content of the material




It started in 2015,  as a minor trade disagreement that looked like it would soon be resolved. Some commitment was deployed into  find a wholistic intervention through the multi stakeholder zero reject initiative  under the then Minister for Agriculture, Chief Audu Ogbeh and involving bodies like the EU and UNIDO

The EU food safety authority(EFSA) had in 2015 banned Nigerian beans because it contained between 0.3mg per kilogram and 4.6mg per kg of Dichlorvos, a pesticide when the maximum acceptable residue limit was 0.01 mg per kg.

It is now clear that all the effort could not yield any convincing result. If Nigeria could not satisfy the EU in 5 continuous years, then questions will be asked as to when and how all the money budgeted for workshops and other meetings was spent. And more importantly, why was the money NOT deployed in ways to guarantee set AIMS and OBJECTIVES. The President must ask questions from the relevant Hon Ministers





30 Jan 2021


Are you a Female Agribusiness Founder in need of tools and resources to build a resilient business?  We are looking for you!
Apply now to be part of Ignite 2020’s exciting and impactful journey.

Good news is, Ignite 2020 is reaching out to both budding and aspiring founders and woohoo to our Francophone sisters too. Let’s do it!💪

Click to apply now! (Anglophone Africa) (Francophone Africa


DF 2020


The embrace of chemical free Food production has made consumers appreciate good health through bio solutions. One of the companies that now champion green agriculture is Norlie s green.  Norlie’s Green is an Agribusiness entity that deals in total Agriculture,value chains and food processing.

Norlie’s Green is registered by law thew Corporate Affairs Commission to underwrite the  above listings of Business.

Norlie’s Green is a vehicle to innovation for most farms and in other agri business space.

Norlie’s Green is in partnership( distribution cadre) for an Indian technology Company,a company that devices several machinery and tools to better enhance the farmers activities and profitability.

Norlie’s Green has recorded success in the last 2 years of registration in terms of vegetable cultivation,cucumber and water melon,we are currently expanding of horizons in to cultivation of capsicum in a green House facility and hopes to continue in the diverse.

Norlie’s Green is notable as well for commodity trades and exchange with arrays of partners is the endeavour.

Being a futuristic entity, Norlie’s Green is the producer and manufacturer of Dr Sachs Sugarcane juice also using the bi- products of sugarcane to produce activated charcoals and bio-char, we hope to produce bio-fuels and molasses t from bi- products in no distant future.

For further information , please contact Safe Food and Feed Foundation, who are marketing them

Contact 234 8033709492


An update on FAQ  SARS-CoV  2   released on September 7 was posted to all members  of the PAEPARD group by Anelich consulting South Africa. Please read on

Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2

South Africa is now in lockdown level 2.

Advice on Coronavirus for Food Workers – See panel on the right.

FAQ – SARS-CoV-2 (“Coronavirus”) – Original posting 31 January 2020.

Twelfth update 07 September 2020.

What is the coronavirus?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large group of viruses that are common in many different species of animals. They cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).    The common cold is something we are all familiar with – this is often caused by what is termed “common human coronaviruses” of which there are many different strains.

The current virus that was reported on 31 December 2019 for the first time by China, is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. It has been given the name SARS-CoV-2 and it causes Covid-19 (coronavirus disease).

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared this outbreak a pandemic.

How does one contract the illness known as Covid-19?

As yet, the original source of the SARS-CoV-2 is not known, even though it has been speculated that pangolins are involved; however, this link is inconclusive at this stage. It is still believed to be zoonotic though (jumped from animal to human).

The primary modes of transmission of infection are:

  • From person-to-person (close contact….touching, shaking hands etc),
  • Via droplets spread by coughing and sneezing.

One can also get the infection from contaminated surfaces (also known as fomites), although this mode of transmission does not appear to be a primary route of transmission.

According to Public Health England, you have to be in close contact with an infected person – within two metres to be at risk.  This can happen at the workplace, in health care centres, hospitals, in a home, buses, taxis, trains, practically anywhere. Frequently touched surfaces include public handrails, lift buttons, money, shopping trolley handles etc. Wash hands well (for at least 20 seconds) after being out in public and sanitize them often. If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer gel with at least 60 % alcohol (70% alcohol according to South African regulations) to disinfect hands.

What are the symptoms of infection?

The most common symptoms of infection are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of sense of smell (anosmia) or even taste now seems to be more common

Loss of smell seems to develop by day 3.

Other symptoms may be fatigue, body aches, headaches, sore throat, chills.  There are also reports of nausea and diarrhoea.  In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia with difficulty breathing, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney and liver failure and even death.

How long does it take for symptoms to show?

Symptoms of Covid-19 typically show between 2-14 days after infection. This is why people who have come into contact with an infected person should self-isolate and seek medical assistance by calling the national toll free number 0800 029 999 or their doctor for assistance.   It is now known that some people will have light symptoms and not go to the doctor, whilst some people do not show any symptoms and are asymptomatic.  The latter may develop symptoms after the 14 day incubation period or may not.  They can still spread the virus, however.  There is growing evidence that asymptomatic people make up a greater percentage of Covid-19 positive individuals than originally thought.

Who is most at risk?

Everyone is potentially at risk i.e. there is no zero risk. However, high risk cases remain mainly older people and people with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, heart conditions, high blood pressure, obesity and HIV.  Children and babies are less likely to be infected.  If infected, children and babies are likely to have mild symptoms but, they can still spread the virus to others. In very few cases, children develop an inflammatory condition that can be serious.

What is the death rate?

The number of cases and deaths change on a daily basis.  It is best to obtain these figures from the World Health Organization.  The overall death rate changes but is at the 2-3% mark, which is still less than the death rate for the SARS-CoV-1 virus, which caused the outbreak in China in 2003 – that death rate ran at 10% even though fewer people in total were infected (around 8000 infections with 800 deaths).  The MERS virus had far fewer cases but had a 34% death rate.  SARS-CoV-2 is far more infectious than SARS-CoV-1 as there are many more cases and the virus is now on all continents except for Antarctica. What often does not make the headlines, is that the majority of people who contract the virus, recover.  South Africa reports daily on recovered patients as well.  There are many thousands of people who will only have mild symptoms.

What is the situation in South Africa?

On 05 March 2020, the South African National Department of Health announced the first case of Covid-19 in South Africa.  Since then, numbers have increased and deaths have occurred.  On 15 March 2020, the South African President addressed the nation, declaring a national state of disaster, as well as announcing a number of important measures to limit the spread of the virus.  On 26 March 2020 at midnight, South Africa went into a very strict lockdown (Level 5) for 21 days until 16 April 2020 to try and limit spread of the infection and to flatten the curve. Level 5 lockdown was extended to end of April.  On 01 May 2020, South Africa moved to level 4 of lockdown, which allowed for gradual re-opening of the economy and on 01 June 2020, the country moved to level 3.  On 15 August 2020, South Africa moved to level 2. As South Africa enters into summer months and there is greater movement of people, the number of cases may increase, although current numbers are showing that most provinces have peaked.

The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) is the official body that coordinates public testing for Covid-19 in South Africa. Private medical laboratories are also offering testing services.

Is there treatment or a vaccine available?

There is no treatment for Covid-19, despite many myths on the internet and social media (see below).  Treatment is based on symptoms according to the patient’s clinical condition. Supportive care for infected persons is usually highly effective.  There are numerous trials being conducted to find a cure and work is ongoing to develop a vaccine.  However, an effective and safe vaccine will probably not be available for another 12 months.  It also remains an open question as to when South Africa may have access to the vaccine to immunize its population.

Can the virus (SARS-CoV-2) be transmitted through food?

There is no evidence to suggest that the virus is transmitted through food, food packaging or food ingredients.  Two closely related viruses, MERS and SARS were not considered a high risk for transmission through food. However, good personal behaviour around food should continue i.e. not sneezing or coughing over food, washing hands and more….these are practices that the food industry has been practicing for decades under “normal” circumstances in the food industry.  The World Health Organization has provided advice for the food industry.

Can this Coronavirus live on surfaces?

Viruses cannot grow outside their host but in many cases, they can survive on surfaces.  New research shows that this coronavirus can survive for up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to 3 days on plastic and stainless steel. It must be emphasised though, that experiments are conducted in controlled environments, which do not necessarily reflect what occurs in practice.

How can I protect myself?

Standard personal hygiene practices, as well as food safety practices in the kitchen, are key to prevent spread of many microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2.

  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue or one’s sleeve.
  • Throw any used tissues into the bin immediately and wash hands (see next point).
  • Wash hands well with soap and water for at least 20 seconds (as has always been touted in the food industry). Do this regularly, but especially after getting home from public areas and before preparing/eating food and after using tissues to blow one’s nose or to cough into.
  • Use hand sanitizer after washing hands or if soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer gel.  Hand sanitizer must contain at least 60% alcohol (70% alcohol in South Africa) to be effective.  Note: If hands are exceptionally dirty or greasy, hand sanitizer will not work.  Hands need to be washed with soap and water first and then sanitized, if needed.
  • Avoid contact with people who are showing flu-like symptoms, in particular fever and coughing – keep at least a distance of 1.5 metres (preferably 2 metres) from another person.
  • Wear masks in public (required by law in South Africa).
  • Do not touch your face, eyes, nose, mouth with unwashed hands.

Wearing masks in public and at work is now law in South Africa.  However, it is vital that masks do not create a false sense of security.  Research has shown that 2 important practices remain key to preventing transmission of the virus.  These are:

  • Practice proper hand hygiene by washing hands regularly with soap and water and/or sanitize with a hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol (70% alcohol in SA).
  • Keep a social distance of at least 1.5 metres, preferably 2 metres.

Wearing masks is an additional measure in the fight against transmission of the virus, not a replacement for hand washing and social distancing.  The World Health Organization has provided advice on masks as well and is well worth reading.

Are there any disinfectants that work against SARS-CoV-2?

For the food industry, the Environmental Protection Agency of the USA has published “list N” which contains a list of disinfectants that can be used.  The NRCS in South Africa also lists what is registered for use in SA. Other disinfectants include household bleach at 0.1% concentration for 1 minute contact time (this can be increased to 0.5% concentration), hydrogen peroxide at 0.5% concentration for 1 minute contact time and 70% alcohol for 1 minute contact time are effective against the virus. Common hand sanitizer gels worked against SARS-CoV-1 and are effective against SARS-CoV-2 as well, provided they contain at least 60% alcohol (70% alcohol in SA). If using wipes to disinfect surfaces, do not use plain “wet wipes”, but look for “disinfectant wipes”.  Normal wet wipes do not contain disinfectant and will be useless against SARS-CoV-2. Remember to throw the wipes away immediately into a waste bin after use and then wash your hands with soap and water or if not available, use hand sanitizer gel.

For further clarification , Please visit

We are grateful to


08 Sept 2020



Most housewives in the developing countries, grind their soup ingredients in public grinding micro-industry. Such method leaves room for reduced hygiene because the machines are not cleaned regularly as required by safety guidelines. More scaring is the effect of iron filings on the consumers of such soup. Persistent use of the grinding machine and installment release of iron filings into the ground ingredients is a source of scare. Consumption of these materials at levels not easily noticeable might lead to their accumulation in the various body organs leading to morbidities and possible eventual death. The metal used for the grinding disc is not the refined type and so it easily wears out and released residues as filings. Iron filings have also been reported in tea to a litigation level Pepper, tomatoes have implicated as possible carriers of these byproducts of grinding. At some point, it could become a subject of litigation  as recorded on tea. A few companies are however, manufacturing better discs that can resist or reduce friction-induced filing release. This underscores the role of mechanical engineering in  achieving food safety

Safe food is the responsibility of all food consumers. Let s be responsible

Call for experts for the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Nutrition (JEMNU) on nitrogen to protein conversion factors for soy-based and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas

Deadline for submission: 1 March 2019

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Nutrition (JEMNU) was established in 2012 to provide scientific advice to the committees of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (i.e. Codex Alimentarius) or Member Countries. JEMNU aims to provide relevant scientific advice in an independent and cost-effective manner; therefore, the Meetings will be convened when there is a specific request from a Codex Committee or Member Countries.

Currently being discussed at the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) is the most appropriate nitrogen to protein conversion factor (or factors) to use in estimating protein content of soy-based ingredients and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas. To provide guidance on this topic, at the 39th Session of CCNFSDU in 2017, the Committee requested that JEMNU be convened to review the evidence and develop evidence-informed guidance regarding nitrogen to protein conversion factors. (To facilitate the work of JEMNU, a systematic review is currently being conducted to compile and analyse the available data on nitrogen to protein conversion factors for foods containing soy-based and/or milk-based ingredients.)

FAO and WHO have therefore initiated the convening of JEMNU and are in the process of identifying experts with relevant knowledge and experiences to participate in the expert meeting to be held during 15 – 19 July 2019 (exact dates to be confirmed). The selected experts will review the evidence to establish appropriate nitrogen to protein conversion factors for soy-based and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas.
Desired expertise

Successful candidates should meet most or all of the following qualifications:

Experience in research and application of methodologies for assessing protein quality and quantity in foods, particularly those containing soy- and milk-based ingredients;
Good knowledge of the English language, both written and oral;
Ability to prepare scientific documents and to work in an international environment with scientists from various disciplines;
Recent, relevant scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals is desirable;
Leadership, or invited participation, in national or international scientific bodies, committees and other expert advisory bodies pertinent to the scope of this work is desirable.

Expert activities

Experts will be expected to actively engage in:

reviewing and interpreting the evidence;
establishing recommended conversion factors;
contributing to the development of a report summarizing the discussion and outcomes of the meeting; and
reviewing the final report.

The meeting report, including recommended conversion factors, will be made available to the 41st Session of CCNFSDU to be held in November 2019.

Dele Fap
2 2019


Kenya has been mapped as an aflatoxin hotspot, a leading cause of liver cancer, hiding in grains like maize and animal food products.

Findings of a study released last month by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) showed a large amount of milk and grains consumed by Kenyans have aflatoxin levels exceeding internationally accepted limit.

Aflatoxin is a tasteless poison produced by Aspergillus flavus fungus caused by a mould in soil that commonly affect cereals. It is mostly passed to humans through animal food products or direct ingestion of affected crops.

The study dubbed “Measuring and mitigating risk of mycotoxins in maize and dairy products for poor consumers in Kenya” was done from samples of of livestock feeds collected from farmers in five counties.

Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation director general Eliud Kireger however dismissed the report as alarmist, saying that most Kenyans could have died if that was the case

For more info, please visit

2 2019