Archive for category: Research and Society


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The embrace of chemical free Food production has made consumers appreciate good health through bio solutions. One of the companies that now champion green agriculture is Norlie s green.  Norlie’s Green is an Agribusiness entity that deals in total Agriculture,value chains and food processing.

Norlie’s Green is registered by law thew Corporate Affairs Commission to underwrite the  above listings of Business.

Norlie’s Green is a vehicle to innovation for most farms and in other agri business space.

Norlie’s Green is in partnership( distribution cadre) for an Indian technology Company,a company that devices several machinery and tools to better enhance the farmers activities and profitability.

Norlie’s Green has recorded success in the last 2 years of registration in terms of vegetable cultivation,cucumber and water melon,we are currently expanding of horizons in to cultivation of capsicum in a green House facility and hopes to continue in the diverse.

Norlie’s Green is notable as well for commodity trades and exchange with arrays of partners is the endeavour.

Being a futuristic entity, Norlie’s Green is the producer and manufacturer of Dr Sachs Sugarcane juice also using the bi- products of sugarcane to produce activated charcoals and bio-char, we hope to produce bio-fuels and molasses t from bi- products in no distant future.

For further information , please contact Safe Food and Feed Foundation, who are marketing them

Contact 234 8033709492


An update on FAQ  SARS-CoV  2   released on September 7 was posted to all members  of the PAEPARD group by Anelich consulting South Africa. Please read on

Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2

South Africa is now in lockdown level 2.

Advice on Coronavirus for Food Workers – See panel on the right.

FAQ – SARS-CoV-2 (“Coronavirus”) – Original posting 31 January 2020.

Twelfth update 07 September 2020.

What is the coronavirus?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large group of viruses that are common in many different species of animals. They cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).    The common cold is something we are all familiar with – this is often caused by what is termed “common human coronaviruses” of which there are many different strains.

The current virus that was reported on 31 December 2019 for the first time by China, is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. It has been given the name SARS-CoV-2 and it causes Covid-19 (coronavirus disease).

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared this outbreak a pandemic.

How does one contract the illness known as Covid-19?

As yet, the original source of the SARS-CoV-2 is not known, even though it has been speculated that pangolins are involved; however, this link is inconclusive at this stage. It is still believed to be zoonotic though (jumped from animal to human).

The primary modes of transmission of infection are:

  • From person-to-person (close contact….touching, shaking hands etc),
  • Via droplets spread by coughing and sneezing.

One can also get the infection from contaminated surfaces (also known as fomites), although this mode of transmission does not appear to be a primary route of transmission.

According to Public Health England, you have to be in close contact with an infected person – within two metres to be at risk.  This can happen at the workplace, in health care centres, hospitals, in a home, buses, taxis, trains, practically anywhere. Frequently touched surfaces include public handrails, lift buttons, money, shopping trolley handles etc. Wash hands well (for at least 20 seconds) after being out in public and sanitize them often. If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer gel with at least 60 % alcohol (70% alcohol according to South African regulations) to disinfect hands.

What are the symptoms of infection?

The most common symptoms of infection are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of sense of smell (anosmia) or even taste now seems to be more common

Loss of smell seems to develop by day 3.

Other symptoms may be fatigue, body aches, headaches, sore throat, chills.  There are also reports of nausea and diarrhoea.  In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia with difficulty breathing, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney and liver failure and even death.

How long does it take for symptoms to show?

Symptoms of Covid-19 typically show between 2-14 days after infection. This is why people who have come into contact with an infected person should self-isolate and seek medical assistance by calling the national toll free number 0800 029 999 or their doctor for assistance.   It is now known that some people will have light symptoms and not go to the doctor, whilst some people do not show any symptoms and are asymptomatic.  The latter may develop symptoms after the 14 day incubation period or may not.  They can still spread the virus, however.  There is growing evidence that asymptomatic people make up a greater percentage of Covid-19 positive individuals than originally thought.

Who is most at risk?

Everyone is potentially at risk i.e. there is no zero risk. However, high risk cases remain mainly older people and people with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, heart conditions, high blood pressure, obesity and HIV.  Children and babies are less likely to be infected.  If infected, children and babies are likely to have mild symptoms but, they can still spread the virus to others. In very few cases, children develop an inflammatory condition that can be serious.

What is the death rate?

The number of cases and deaths change on a daily basis.  It is best to obtain these figures from the World Health Organization.  The overall death rate changes but is at the 2-3% mark, which is still less than the death rate for the SARS-CoV-1 virus, which caused the outbreak in China in 2003 – that death rate ran at 10% even though fewer people in total were infected (around 8000 infections with 800 deaths).  The MERS virus had far fewer cases but had a 34% death rate.  SARS-CoV-2 is far more infectious than SARS-CoV-1 as there are many more cases and the virus is now on all continents except for Antarctica. What often does not make the headlines, is that the majority of people who contract the virus, recover.  South Africa reports daily on recovered patients as well.  There are many thousands of people who will only have mild symptoms.

What is the situation in South Africa?

On 05 March 2020, the South African National Department of Health announced the first case of Covid-19 in South Africa.  Since then, numbers have increased and deaths have occurred.  On 15 March 2020, the South African President addressed the nation, declaring a national state of disaster, as well as announcing a number of important measures to limit the spread of the virus.  On 26 March 2020 at midnight, South Africa went into a very strict lockdown (Level 5) for 21 days until 16 April 2020 to try and limit spread of the infection and to flatten the curve. Level 5 lockdown was extended to end of April.  On 01 May 2020, South Africa moved to level 4 of lockdown, which allowed for gradual re-opening of the economy and on 01 June 2020, the country moved to level 3.  On 15 August 2020, South Africa moved to level 2. As South Africa enters into summer months and there is greater movement of people, the number of cases may increase, although current numbers are showing that most provinces have peaked.

The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) is the official body that coordinates public testing for Covid-19 in South Africa. Private medical laboratories are also offering testing services.

Is there treatment or a vaccine available?

There is no treatment for Covid-19, despite many myths on the internet and social media (see below).  Treatment is based on symptoms according to the patient’s clinical condition. Supportive care for infected persons is usually highly effective.  There are numerous trials being conducted to find a cure and work is ongoing to develop a vaccine.  However, an effective and safe vaccine will probably not be available for another 12 months.  It also remains an open question as to when South Africa may have access to the vaccine to immunize its population.

Can the virus (SARS-CoV-2) be transmitted through food?

There is no evidence to suggest that the virus is transmitted through food, food packaging or food ingredients.  Two closely related viruses, MERS and SARS were not considered a high risk for transmission through food. However, good personal behaviour around food should continue i.e. not sneezing or coughing over food, washing hands and more….these are practices that the food industry has been practicing for decades under “normal” circumstances in the food industry.  The World Health Organization has provided advice for the food industry.

Can this Coronavirus live on surfaces?

Viruses cannot grow outside their host but in many cases, they can survive on surfaces.  New research shows that this coronavirus can survive for up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to 3 days on plastic and stainless steel. It must be emphasised though, that experiments are conducted in controlled environments, which do not necessarily reflect what occurs in practice.

How can I protect myself?

Standard personal hygiene practices, as well as food safety practices in the kitchen, are key to prevent spread of many microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2.

  • Cough or sneeze into a tissue or one’s sleeve.
  • Throw any used tissues into the bin immediately and wash hands (see next point).
  • Wash hands well with soap and water for at least 20 seconds (as has always been touted in the food industry). Do this regularly, but especially after getting home from public areas and before preparing/eating food and after using tissues to blow one’s nose or to cough into.
  • Use hand sanitizer after washing hands or if soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer gel.  Hand sanitizer must contain at least 60% alcohol (70% alcohol in South Africa) to be effective.  Note: If hands are exceptionally dirty or greasy, hand sanitizer will not work.  Hands need to be washed with soap and water first and then sanitized, if needed.
  • Avoid contact with people who are showing flu-like symptoms, in particular fever and coughing – keep at least a distance of 1.5 metres (preferably 2 metres) from another person.
  • Wear masks in public (required by law in South Africa).
  • Do not touch your face, eyes, nose, mouth with unwashed hands.

Wearing masks in public and at work is now law in South Africa.  However, it is vital that masks do not create a false sense of security.  Research has shown that 2 important practices remain key to preventing transmission of the virus.  These are:

  • Practice proper hand hygiene by washing hands regularly with soap and water and/or sanitize with a hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol (70% alcohol in SA).
  • Keep a social distance of at least 1.5 metres, preferably 2 metres.

Wearing masks is an additional measure in the fight against transmission of the virus, not a replacement for hand washing and social distancing.  The World Health Organization has provided advice on masks as well and is well worth reading.

Are there any disinfectants that work against SARS-CoV-2?

For the food industry, the Environmental Protection Agency of the USA has published “list N” which contains a list of disinfectants that can be used.  The NRCS in South Africa also lists what is registered for use in SA. Other disinfectants include household bleach at 0.1% concentration for 1 minute contact time (this can be increased to 0.5% concentration), hydrogen peroxide at 0.5% concentration for 1 minute contact time and 70% alcohol for 1 minute contact time are effective against the virus. Common hand sanitizer gels worked against SARS-CoV-1 and are effective against SARS-CoV-2 as well, provided they contain at least 60% alcohol (70% alcohol in SA). If using wipes to disinfect surfaces, do not use plain “wet wipes”, but look for “disinfectant wipes”.  Normal wet wipes do not contain disinfectant and will be useless against SARS-CoV-2. Remember to throw the wipes away immediately into a waste bin after use and then wash your hands with soap and water or if not available, use hand sanitizer gel.

For further clarification , Please visit

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08 Sept 2020



Most housewives in the developing countries, grind their soup ingredients in public grinding micro-industry. Such method leaves room for reduced hygiene because the machines are not cleaned regularly as required by safety guidelines. More scaring is the effect of iron filings on the consumers of such soup. Persistent use of the grinding machine and installment release of iron filings into the ground ingredients is a source of scare. Consumption of these materials at levels not easily noticeable might lead to their accumulation in the various body organs leading to morbidities and possible eventual death. The metal used for the grinding disc is not the refined type and so it easily wears out and released residues as filings. Iron filings have also been reported in tea to a litigation level Pepper, tomatoes have implicated as possible carriers of these byproducts of grinding. At some point, it could become a subject of litigation  as recorded on tea. A few companies are however, manufacturing better discs that can resist or reduce friction-induced filing release. This underscores the role of mechanical engineering in  achieving food safety

Safe food is the responsibility of all food consumers. Let s be responsible

Call for experts for the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Nutrition (JEMNU) on nitrogen to protein conversion factors for soy-based and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas

Deadline for submission: 1 March 2019

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Nutrition (JEMNU) was established in 2012 to provide scientific advice to the committees of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (i.e. Codex Alimentarius) or Member Countries. JEMNU aims to provide relevant scientific advice in an independent and cost-effective manner; therefore, the Meetings will be convened when there is a specific request from a Codex Committee or Member Countries.

Currently being discussed at the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) is the most appropriate nitrogen to protein conversion factor (or factors) to use in estimating protein content of soy-based ingredients and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas. To provide guidance on this topic, at the 39th Session of CCNFSDU in 2017, the Committee requested that JEMNU be convened to review the evidence and develop evidence-informed guidance regarding nitrogen to protein conversion factors. (To facilitate the work of JEMNU, a systematic review is currently being conducted to compile and analyse the available data on nitrogen to protein conversion factors for foods containing soy-based and/or milk-based ingredients.)

FAO and WHO have therefore initiated the convening of JEMNU and are in the process of identifying experts with relevant knowledge and experiences to participate in the expert meeting to be held during 15 – 19 July 2019 (exact dates to be confirmed). The selected experts will review the evidence to establish appropriate nitrogen to protein conversion factors for soy-based and milk-based ingredients used in infant formulas and follow-up formulas.
Desired expertise

Successful candidates should meet most or all of the following qualifications:

Experience in research and application of methodologies for assessing protein quality and quantity in foods, particularly those containing soy- and milk-based ingredients;
Good knowledge of the English language, both written and oral;
Ability to prepare scientific documents and to work in an international environment with scientists from various disciplines;
Recent, relevant scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals is desirable;
Leadership, or invited participation, in national or international scientific bodies, committees and other expert advisory bodies pertinent to the scope of this work is desirable.

Expert activities

Experts will be expected to actively engage in:

reviewing and interpreting the evidence;
establishing recommended conversion factors;
contributing to the development of a report summarizing the discussion and outcomes of the meeting; and
reviewing the final report.

The meeting report, including recommended conversion factors, will be made available to the 41st Session of CCNFSDU to be held in November 2019.

Dele Fap
2 2019


Kenya has been mapped as an aflatoxin hotspot, a leading cause of liver cancer, hiding in grains like maize and animal food products.

Findings of a study released last month by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) showed a large amount of milk and grains consumed by Kenyans have aflatoxin levels exceeding internationally accepted limit.

Aflatoxin is a tasteless poison produced by Aspergillus flavus fungus caused by a mould in soil that commonly affect cereals. It is mostly passed to humans through animal food products or direct ingestion of affected crops.

The study dubbed “Measuring and mitigating risk of mycotoxins in maize and dairy products for poor consumers in Kenya” was done from samples of of livestock feeds collected from farmers in five counties.

Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation director general Eliud Kireger however dismissed the report as alarmist, saying that most Kenyans could have died if that was the case

For more info, please visit

2 2019

A new report exposes emerging mycotoxins in sesame and soybean in Abuja , Nigeria

Some major and emerging mycotoxins were reported in soybean and sesame available at the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. The report further established the unwholesome status of these and other commodities vended in this part of Nigeria

For further reading, please visit

Jul 6, 2018 – European Journal of Biological Research 2018; 8 (3): 121-130

DF 17 July 2018


The discovery of a new species == Aspergillus  korhogoensis has been reported in the West African nation Cote D’Ivoire. In the report by many researchers comprising nationals of USA, France, Cote D Ivoire and Nigeria, The new species  also confirmed  to produce aflatoxin , a mycotoxin common on grains and other crops  particularly in store on has further raised the scare on food safety in Sub saharan African.

The paper was published today in  the current edition of the scientific  journal——-TOXINS   2017, 9, 353; doi:10.3390/toxins9110353


For further readings , please go to


On October 16, 2017 the world Food day was observed at Babcock University, Ilishan remo  Ogun state. It was in partnership with Mushroom Development Foundation  Highlights were presentation of awards to outstanding stakeholders ion the Agriculture and Food industry . Awardees included Chief Kessington Adebutu, Chief Oba Otudeko, the chairman of All Farmers Association of Nigeria AFAN, Lagos state Otunba Femi Oke, and Chief Kuteyi . The Vice Chancellor Prof Ademola S Tayo commended the organizers and expressed the readiness of BU to go into productive  partnership with corporate bodies  in the current spirit of entrepreneurship and alternative revenue sources for the institution

Other dignitaries present were Chief Oyewole form Ishara remo , Chief Jimi Abiodun , Mr Ariyibi who represented the state commissioner for Trade

Presentations were made by Dr Agbato (Junior) of Animal Care , Ogere and Chief Kuteyi of Spectra. The President, Mushroom Development Foundation Mrs Tolani Roberts and Dr Tony Wemton Owatemi spoke about their experiences and the urgent need to convert wastes to wealth in Nigeria. Dr Owatemi expressed the willingness of MDF to go into collaboration with Babcock University in this regard with the hope of making the project a signature endeavour for the University.



Reported by DF